Rapid evolution of PARP genes suggests a broad role for ADP-ribosylation in host-virus conflicts.

post-translational protein modifications such as phosphorylation and ubiquitinylation is a common molecular target of conflict between viruses and their hosts. However, the role of post-translational modifications, such as ADP-ribosylation, in host-virus interactions are less well characterized. ADP-ribosylation performed by proteins encoded by PARP (also called ARTD) gene family. The majority of the 17 human PARP genes are poorly marked. However, one PARP protein, PARP13 / ZAP, has broad antiviral activity and has evolved under positive selection (diversification) in primates. like the typical evolution of the domain is locked in antagonistic ‘arms race’ with viral factors.

To identify additional PARP genes that may be involved in host-virus interactions, we do evolutionary analysis on all primates PARP genes to look for signs of rapid evolution. Contrary to the expectation that most of PARP genes involved in the function of ‘housekeeping’, we found that nearly a third of PARP genes that evolved under strong positive selection over and over.

We identify> 300 amino acid region PARP4 regular, dome structure cytoplasmic components, will grow rapidly in several lineages of mammals, suggesting this region serves as the interface of host-pathogen specificity is important. We also found a positive selection of PARP9, 14 and 15, only three human genes that contain both PARP and macrodomains domain. Macrodomains uniquely identify, and in some cases reverse, the protein mono-ADP-ribosylation, and we observed a strong signature of positive selection macrodomains repeated throughout the macro-PARP.

Furthermore, PARP14 and PARP15 have to undergo repeated rounds of birth and lose genes during vertebrate evolution, consistent with recurrent gene innovation. Together with previous studies that involved several PARPs in immunity, as well as those that demonstrate the role macrodomains viral encoded in the evasion of host immune, evolutionary analysis we show that addition, the recognition and elimination of ADP-ribosylation is important, the currency undervalued in the host -virus conflict.

Rapid evolution of PARP genes suggests a broad role for ADP-ribosylation in host-virus conflicts.
Rapid evolution of PARP genes suggests a broad role for ADP-ribosylation in host-virus conflicts.

genotoxic effects of exposure to the metal (loid) s. A molecular epidemiological survey of people living and working in the mining area Panasqueira, Portugal.

Previous research investigating the exposure of metal (loid) s of people living in mining areas of central Portugal Panasqueira find a higher internal dose of elements such as arsenic, chromium, lead, manganese, molybdenum and zinc in individuals exposed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of genotoxic damage caused by exposure to environmental and occupational individuals previously tested for metal (loid) level in different biological matrices, and the role of modulation possibilities genetic polymorphisms involved in the metabolism and DNA repair.

T-cell receptor mutation test, comet assay, micronucleus (MN) test and chromosomal aberrations (CA) is done in a group of 122 subjects who worked in the mines Panasqueira or stay in the same area. Modifying effect of polymorphism in GSTA2, GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, XRCC1, APEX1, MPG, MUTYH, OGG1, PARP1, PARP4, ERCC1, ERCC4 and ERCC5 genes investigated.

a significant increase in the frequency of all investigated biomarker found in the exposed groups, but they are exposed to the environment are generally higher. a significant influence of polymorphism observed for GSTM1 deletion and at a frequency of CA OGG1 rs1052133, rs1130409 APEX1 to DNA damage, ERCC1 rs3212986 on DNA damage and CA frequencies, and ERCC4 rs1800067 in MN and CA frequencies.

Human Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) ELISA Kit

RDR-PARP4-Hu-48Tests 48 Tests
EUR 544

Human Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) ELISA Kit

RDR-PARP4-Hu-96Tests 96 Tests
EUR 756

Human Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) ELISA Kit

RD-PARP4-Hu-48Tests 48 Tests
EUR 521

Human Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) ELISA Kit

RD-PARP4-Hu-96Tests 96 Tests
EUR 723

Human Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) ELISA Kit

DLR-PARP4-Hu-48T 48T
EUR 517
Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Human Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) in samples from tissue homogenates or other biological fluids.

Human Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) ELISA Kit

DLR-PARP4-Hu-96T 96T
EUR 673
Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Human Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) in samples from tissue homogenates or other biological fluids.

PARP4 antibody

70R-33845 100 ug
EUR 327
Description: Rabbit polyclonal PARP4 antibody

PARP4 Antibody

ABD2386 100 ug
EUR 438

anti-PARP4

YF-PA23186 50 ul
EUR 334
Description: Mouse polyclonal to PARP4

PARP4 antibody

10R-1680 100 ug
EUR 512
Description: Mouse monoclonal PARP4 antibody

PARP4 Antibody

DF2386 200ul
EUR 304
Description: PARP4 antibody detects endogenous levels of total PARP4.

PARP4 Antibody

1-CSB-PA007321
  • EUR 222.00
  • EUR 195.00
  • 100ug
  • 50ug
Description: A polyclonal antibody against PARP4. Recognizes PARP4 from Human. This antibody is Unconjugated. Tested in the following application: IHC, ELISA;IHC:1/100-1/300.ELISA:1/10000

PARP4 Antibody

1-CSB-PA947926
  • EUR 317.00
  • EUR 244.00
  • 100ul
  • 50ul
Description: A polyclonal antibody against PARP4. Recognizes PARP4 from Human. This antibody is Unconjugated. Tested in the following application: ELISA, IHC;ELISA:1:1000-1:2000, IHC:1:25-1:100

PARP4 siRNA

20-abx927766
  • EUR 551.00
  • EUR 732.00
  • 15 nmol
  • 30 nmol

PARP4 Antibody

37796-100ul 100ul
EUR 252

PARP4 Blocking Peptide

DF2386-BP 1mg
EUR 195

Anti-PARP4 antibody

STJ110641 100 µl
EUR 277
Description: This gene encodes poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase-like 1 protein, which is capable of catalyzing a poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reaction. This protein has a catalytic domain which is homologous to that of poly (ADP-ribosyl) transferase, but lacks an N-terminal DNA binding domain which activates the C-terminal catalytic domain of poly (ADP-ribosyl) transferase. Since this protein is not capable of binding DNA directly, its transferase activity may be activated by other factors such as protein-protein interaction mediated by the extensive carboxyl terminus.

Anti-PARP4 antibody

STJ119167 100 µl
EUR 277

PARP4 Conjugated Antibody

C37796 100ul
EUR 397

PARP4 ELISA KIT|Human

EF007039 96 Tests
EUR 689

Human PARP4 shRNA Plasmid

20-abx950100
  • EUR 801.00
  • EUR 1121.00
  • 150 µg
  • 300 µg

Rabbit Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) ELISA Kit

abx363456-96tests 96 tests
EUR 825

PARP4 ORF Vector (Human) (pORF)

ORF027423 1.0 ug DNA
EUR 405

Parp4 ORF Vector (Mouse) (pORF)

ORF053400 1.0 ug DNA
EUR 1572

PARP4 ELISA Kit (Human) (OKCD08347)

OKCD08347 96 Wells
EUR 975
Description: Description of target: This gene encodes poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase-like 1 protein, which is capable of catalyzing a poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reaction. This protein has a catalytic domain which is homologous to that of poly (ADP-ribosyl) transferase, but lacks an N-terminal DNA binding domain which activates the C-terminal catalytic domain of poly (ADP-ribosyl) transferase. Since this protein is not capable of binding DNA directly, its transferase activity may be activated by other factors such as protein-protein interaction mediated by the extensive carboxyl terminus.;Species reactivity: Human;Application: ELISA;Assay info: ;Sensitivity: < 0.061ng/mL

PARP4 ELISA Kit (Human) (OKDD00456)

OKDD00456 96 Wells
EUR 975
Description: Description of target: This gene encodes poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase-like 1 protein, which is capable of catalyzing a poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reaction. This protein has a catalytic domain which is homologous to that of poly (ADP-ribosyl) transferase, but lacks an N-terminal DNA binding domain which activates the C-terminal catalytic domain of poly (ADP-ribosyl) transferase. Since this protein is not capable of binding DNA directly, its transferase activity may be activated by other factors such as protein-protein interaction mediated by the extensive carboxyl terminus.;Species reactivity: Human;Application: ;Assay info: Quantitative Sandwich ELISA;Sensitivity: < 0.061 ng/mL

PARP4-AS1 ORF Vector (Human) (pORF)

ORF027424 1.0 ug DNA Ask for price

Parp4 sgRNA CRISPR Lentivector set (Mouse)

K4858201 3 x 1.0 ug
EUR 339

PARP4 sgRNA CRISPR Lentivector set (Human)

K1595801 3 x 1.0 ug
EUR 339

HNRRabbit pAb Rabbit pAb

A17497-200ul 200 ul
EUR 459

HNRRabbit pAb Rabbit pAb

A17497-20ul 20 ul
EUR 183

HNRRabbit pAb Rabbit pAb

A17497-100ul 100 ul
EUR 308

HNRRabbit pAb Rabbit pAb

A17497-50ul 50 ul
EUR 223

Rabbit pAbPC4 Rabbit pAb

A5948-100ul 100 ul
EUR 308

Rabbit pAbPC4 Rabbit pAb

A5948-200ul 200 ul
EUR 459

Rabbit pAbPC4 Rabbit pAb

A5948-20ul 20 ul
EUR 183

Rabbit pAbPC4 Rabbit pAb

A5948-50ul 50 ul
EUR 223

Rabbit pAbPN1 Rabbit pAb

A6041-100ul 100 ul
EUR 308

Rabbit pAbPN1 Rabbit pAb

A6041-200ul 200 ul
EUR 459

Rabbit pAbPN1 Rabbit pAb

A6041-20ul 20 ul
EUR 183

Rabbit pAbPN1 Rabbit pAb

A6041-50ul 50 ul
EUR 223

Rabbit pAbPC3 Rabbit pAb

A18370-100ul 100 ul
EUR 308

Rabbit pAbPC3 Rabbit pAb

A18370-200ul 200 ul
EUR 459

Rabbit pAbPC3 Rabbit pAb

A18370-20ul 20 ul
EUR 183

Rabbit pAbPC3 Rabbit pAb

A18370-50ul 50 ul
EUR 223

Rabbit pAbPC1 Rabbit pAb

A14872-100ul 100 ul
EUR 308

Rabbit pAbPC1 Rabbit pAb

A14872-200ul 200 ul
EUR 459

Rabbit pAbPC1 Rabbit pAb

A14872-20ul 20 ul
EUR 183

Rabbit pAbPC1 Rabbit pAb

A14872-50ul 50 ul
EUR 223

Rabbit pAbPC5 Rabbit pAb

A9997-100ul 100 ul
EUR 308

Rabbit pAbPC5 Rabbit pAb

A9997-200ul 200 ul
EUR 459

Rabbit pAbPC5 Rabbit pAb

A9997-20ul 20 ul
EUR 183

Rabbit pAbPC5 Rabbit pAb

A9997-50ul 50 ul
EUR 223

PARP4 3'UTR Luciferase Stable Cell Line

TU017410 1.0 ml
EUR 1394

Parp4 3'UTR Luciferase Stable Cell Line

TU115923 1.0 ml Ask for price

Parp4 3'UTR GFP Stable Cell Line

TU165923 1.0 ml Ask for price

PARP4 3'UTR GFP Stable Cell Line

TU067410 1.0 ml
EUR 1394

PARP4 Protein Vector (Human) (pPB-C-His)

PV109690 500 ng Ask for price

PARP4 Protein Vector (Human) (pPB-N-His)

PV109691 500 ng Ask for price

PARP4 Protein Vector (Human) (pPM-C-HA)

PV109692 500 ng Ask for price

PARP4 Protein Vector (Human) (pPM-C-His)

PV109693 500 ng Ask for price

PARP4 Protein Vector (Mouse) (pPB-C-His)

PV213598 500 ng
EUR 3252

PARP4 Protein Vector (Mouse) (pPB-N-His)

PV213599 500 ng
EUR 3252

PARP4 Protein Vector (Mouse) (pPM-C-HA)

PV213600 500 ng
EUR 3252

PARP4 Protein Vector (Mouse) (pPM-C-His)

PV213601 500 ng
EUR 3252

Recombinant Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4)

4-RPC984Hu01
  • EUR 458.40
  • EUR 226.00
  • EUR 1444.00
  • EUR 548.00
  • EUR 996.00
  • EUR 370.00
  • EUR 3460.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Human Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 expressed in: E.coli

Parp4 sgRNA CRISPR Lentivector (Mouse) (Target 1)

K4858202 1.0 ug DNA
EUR 154

Parp4 sgRNA CRISPR Lentivector (Mouse) (Target 2)

K4858203 1.0 ug DNA
EUR 154

Parp4 sgRNA CRISPR Lentivector (Mouse) (Target 3)

K4858204 1.0 ug DNA
EUR 154

PARP4 sgRNA CRISPR Lentivector (Human) (Target 1)

K1595802 1.0 ug DNA
EUR 154

PARP4 sgRNA CRISPR Lentivector (Human) (Target 2)

K1595803 1.0 ug DNA
EUR 154

PARP4 sgRNA CRISPR Lentivector (Human) (Target 3)

K1595804 1.0 ug DNA
EUR 154

Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) Antibody

abx147654-100ug 100 ug
EUR 439

Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) Antibody

20-abx119585
  • EUR 314.00
  • EUR 98.00
  • EUR 398.00
  • EUR 495.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 200 ug
  • 300 µg

Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) Antibody

20-abx128291
  • EUR 425.00
  • EUR 133.00
  • EUR 1205.00
  • EUR 578.00
  • EUR 328.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) Antibody

20-abx006130
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 592.00
  • EUR 182.00
  • EUR 314.00
  • 100 ul
  • 200 ul
  • 20 ul
  • 50 ul

Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) Antibody

20-abx322903
  • EUR 314.00
  • EUR 244.00
  • 100 ug
  • 50 ug

Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) Antibody

20-abx339348
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 300.00
  • 100 ul
  • 50 ul

Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) Antibody

20-abx174132
  • EUR 857.00
  • EUR 439.00
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug

ACTB Rabbit pAb

AC006 50 ul
EUR 176

TUBA4A Rabbit pAb

AC007 50 ul
EUR 195

TUBA4A Rabbit pAb

AC014 50 ul
EUR 223

GAPDH Rabbit pAb

AC027 50 ul
EUR 176

TUBA4A Rabbit pAb

AC031 50 ul
EUR 195

Tau Rabbit pAb

A0002-100ul 100 ul
EUR 308

Tau Rabbit pAb

A0002-200ul 200 ul
EUR 459

Tau Rabbit pAb

A0002-20ul 20 ul
EUR 183

Tau Rabbit pAb

A0002-50ul 50 ul
EUR 223

Rb Rabbit pAb

A0003-100ul 100 ul
EUR 308

Rb Rabbit pAb

A0003-200ul 200 ul
EUR 459

Rb Rabbit pAb

A0003-20ul 20 ul
EUR 183

Rb Rabbit pAb

A0003-50ul 50 ul
EUR 223

TLR4 Rabbit pAb

A0007-100ul 100 ul
EUR 308

TLR4 Rabbit pAb

A0007-200ul 200 ul
EUR 459

TLR4 Rabbit pAb

A0007-20ul 20 ul
EUR 183

TLR4 Rabbit pAb

A0007-50ul 50 ul
EUR 223

PARP1 Rabbit pAb

A0010-100ul 100 ul
EUR 459

PARP1 Rabbit pAb

A0010-200ul 200 ul
EUR 686

PARP1 Rabbit pAb

A0010-20ul 20 ul
EUR 183

PARP1 Rabbit pAb

A0010-50ul 50 ul
EUR 308

SNCA Rabbit pAb

A0012-100ul 100 ul
EUR 308

SNCA Rabbit pAb

A0012-200ul 200 ul
EUR 459

SNCA Rabbit pAb

A0012-20ul 20 ul Ask for price

SNCA Rabbit pAb

A0012-50ul 50 ul Ask for price

TYMS Rabbit pAb

A0017-100ul 100 ul
EUR 308

TYMS Rabbit pAb

A0017-200ul 200 ul
EUR 459

TYMS Rabbit pAb

A0017-20ul 20 ul Ask for price

TYMS Rabbit pAb

A0017-50ul 50 ul Ask for price

ENO2 Rabbit pAb

A0022-100ul 100 ul
EUR 308

ENO2 Rabbit pAb

A0022-200ul 200 ul
EUR 459

ENO2 Rabbit pAb

A0022-20ul 20 ul Ask for price

ENO2 Rabbit pAb

A0022-50ul 50 ul Ask for price

FAK Rabbit pAb

A0024-100ul 100 ul
EUR 384

FAK Rabbit pAb

A0024-200ul 200 ul Ask for price

FAK Rabbit pAb

A0024-20ul 20 ul
EUR 183

FAK Rabbit pAb

A0024-50ul 50 ul
EUR 265

STAT1 Rabbit pAb

A0027-100ul 100 ul
EUR 308

STAT1 Rabbit pAb

A0027-200ul 200 ul
EUR 459

STAT1 Rabbit pAb

A0027-20ul 20 ul
EUR 183

STAT1 Rabbit pAb

A0027-50ul 50 ul
EUR 223

TH Rabbit pAb

A0028-100ul 100 ul
EUR 308

TH Rabbit pAb

A0028-200ul 200 ul
EUR 459

TH Rabbit pAb

A0028-20ul 20 ul
EUR 183

TH Rabbit pAb

A0028-50ul 50 ul
EUR 223

TNFRSF1A Rabbit pAb

A0033-100ul 100 ul
EUR 308

TNFRSF1A Rabbit pAb

A0033-200ul 200 ul
EUR 459

TNFRSF1A Rabbit pAb

A0033-20ul 20 ul
EUR 183

TNFRSF1A Rabbit pAb

A0033-50ul 50 ul
EUR 223

BRAF Rabbit pAb

A0038-100ul 100 ul
EUR 308

BRAF Rabbit pAb

A0038-200ul 200 ul
EUR 459

BRAF Rabbit pAb

A0038-20ul 20 ul
EUR 183

BRAF Rabbit pAb

A0038-50ul 50 ul
EUR 223

GRB2 Rabbit pAb

A0039-100ul 100 ul
EUR 308

GRB2 Rabbit pAb

A0039-200ul 200 ul
EUR 459

GRB2 Rabbit pAb

A0039-20ul 20 ul Ask for price

GRB2 Rabbit pAb

A0039-50ul 50 ul Ask for price

MET Rabbit pAb

A0040-100ul 100 ul
EUR 308

MET Rabbit pAb

A0040-200ul 200 ul
EUR 459

MET Rabbit pAb

A0040-20ul 20 ul
EUR 183

MET Rabbit pAb

A0040-50ul 50 ul
EUR 223

CTSD Rabbit pAb

A0041-100ul 100 ul
EUR 308

CTSD Rabbit pAb

A0041-200ul 200 ul
EUR 459

CTSD Rabbit pAb

A0041-20ul 20 ul Ask for price

CTSD Rabbit pAb

A0041-50ul 50 ul Ask for price

FGFR2 Rabbit pAb

A0044-100ul 100 ul
EUR 308

FGFR2 Rabbit pAb

A0044-200ul 200 ul
EUR 459

PSMB1 Rabbit pAb

A1043-100ul 100 ul
EUR 308

PSMB1 Rabbit pAb

A1043-200ul 200 ul
EUR 459

PSMB1 Rabbit pAb

A1043-20ul 20 ul
EUR 183

PSMB1 Rabbit pAb

A1043-50ul 50 ul
EUR 223

RFTN1 Rabbit pAb

A10430-100ul 100 ul
EUR 308

RFTN1 Rabbit pAb

A10430-200ul 200 ul
EUR 459

Our results show that metal (loid) Panasqueira mine contamination in the area due to genotoxic damage in both the individuals working in the mines or live in the area.