Rapid evolution of PARP genes suggests a broad role for ADP-ribosylation in host-virus conflicts.

post-translational protein modifications such as phosphorylation and ubiquitinylation is a common molecular target of conflict between viruses and their hosts. However, the role of post-translational modifications, such as ADP-ribosylation, in host-virus interactions are less well characterized. ADP-ribosylation performed by proteins encoded by PARP (also called ARTD) gene family. The majority of the 17 human PARP genes are poorly marked. However, one PARP protein, PARP13 / ZAP, has broad antiviral activity and has evolved under positive selection (diversification) in primates. like the typical evolution of the domain is locked in antagonistic ‘arms race’ with viral factors.

To identify additional PARP genes that may be involved in host-virus interactions, we do evolutionary analysis on all primates PARP genes to look for signs of rapid evolution. Contrary to the expectation that most of PARP genes involved in the function of ‘housekeeping’, we found that nearly a third of PARP genes that evolved under strong positive selection over and over.

We identify> 300 amino acid region PARP4 regular, dome structure cytoplasmic components, will grow rapidly in several lineages of mammals, suggesting this region serves as the interface of host-pathogen specificity is important. We also found a positive selection of PARP9, 14 and 15, only three human genes that contain both PARP and macrodomains domain. Macrodomains uniquely identify, and in some cases reverse, the protein mono-ADP-ribosylation, and we observed a strong signature of positive selection macrodomains repeated throughout the macro-PARP.

Furthermore, PARP14 and PARP15 have to undergo repeated rounds of birth and lose genes during vertebrate evolution, consistent with recurrent gene innovation. Together with previous studies that involved several PARPs in immunity, as well as those that demonstrate the role macrodomains viral encoded in the evasion of host immune, evolutionary analysis we show that addition, the recognition and elimination of ADP-ribosylation is important, the currency undervalued in the host -virus conflict.

Rapid evolution of PARP genes suggests a broad role for ADP-ribosylation in host-virus conflicts.
Rapid evolution of PARP genes suggests a broad role for ADP-ribosylation in host-virus conflicts.

genotoxic effects of exposure to the metal (loid) s. A molecular epidemiological survey of people living and working in the mining area Panasqueira, Portugal.

Previous research investigating the exposure of metal (loid) s of people living in mining areas of central Portugal Panasqueira find a higher internal dose of elements such as arsenic, chromium, lead, manganese, molybdenum and zinc in individuals exposed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of genotoxic damage caused by exposure to environmental and occupational individuals previously tested for metal (loid) level in different biological matrices, and the role of modulation possibilities genetic polymorphisms involved in the metabolism and DNA repair.

T-cell receptor mutation test, comet assay, micronucleus (MN) test and chromosomal aberrations (CA) is done in a group of 122 subjects who worked in the mines Panasqueira or stay in the same area. Modifying effect of polymorphism in GSTA2, GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, XRCC1, APEX1, MPG, MUTYH, OGG1, PARP1, PARP4, ERCC1, ERCC4 and ERCC5 genes investigated.

a significant increase in the frequency of all investigated biomarker found in the exposed groups, but they are exposed to the environment are generally higher. a significant influence of polymorphism observed for GSTM1 deletion and at a frequency of CA OGG1 rs1052133, rs1130409 APEX1 to DNA damage, ERCC1 rs3212986 on DNA damage and CA frequencies, and ERCC4 rs1800067 in MN and CA frequencies.

PARP4 Rabbit pAb

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EUR 308

PARP4 Rabbit pAb

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PARP4 Rabbit pAb

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EUR 183

PARP4 Rabbit pAb

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EUR 223

Human Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) ELISA Kit

DLR-PARP4-Hu-48T 48T
EUR 517
  • Should the Human Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) ELISA Kit is proven to show malperformance, you will receive a refund or a free replacement.
Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Human Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) in samples from tissue homogenates or other biological fluids.

Human Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) ELISA Kit

DLR-PARP4-Hu-96T 96T
EUR 673
  • Should the Human Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) ELISA Kit is proven to show malperformance, you will receive a refund or a free replacement.
Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Human Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) in samples from tissue homogenates or other biological fluids.

Human Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) ELISA Kit

RDR-PARP4-Hu-48Tests 48 Tests
EUR 544

Human Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) ELISA Kit

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EUR 756

Human Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) ELISA Kit

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EUR 521

Human Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) ELISA Kit

RD-PARP4-Hu-96Tests 96 Tests
EUR 723

PARP4 Antibody

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EUR 252

PARP4 antibody

10R-1680 100 ug
EUR 512
Description: Mouse monoclonal PARP4 antibody

PARP4 Antibody

1-CSB-PA947926
  • EUR 317.00
  • EUR 244.00
  • 100ul
  • 50ul
  • Form: Liquid
  • Buffer: -20°C, pH7.4 PBS, 0.05% NaN3, 40% Glycerol Antigen affinity purification
Description: A polyclonal antibody against PARP4. Recognizes PARP4 from Human. This antibody is Unconjugated. Tested in the following application: ELISA, IHC;ELISA:1:1000-1:2000, IHC:1:25-1:100

PARP4 Antibody

DF2386 200ul
EUR 304
Description: PARP4 antibody detects endogenous levels of total PARP4.

PARP4 antibody

70R-33845 100 ug
EUR 327
Description: Rabbit polyclonal PARP4 antibody

PARP4 Antibody

1-CSB-PA007321
  • EUR 222.00
  • EUR 195.00
  • 100ug
  • 50ug
  • Form: Liquid
  • Buffer: Liquid in PBS containing 50% glycerol, 0.5% BSA and 0.02% sodium azide. The antibody was affinity-purified from rabbit antiserum by affinity-chromatography using epitope-specific immunogen.
Description: A polyclonal antibody against PARP4. Recognizes PARP4 from Human. This antibody is Unconjugated. Tested in the following application: IHC, ELISA;IHC:1/100-1/300.ELISA:1/10000

PARP4 siRNA

20-abx927766
  • EUR 551.00
  • EUR 732.00
  • 15 nmol
  • 30 nmol
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.

PARP4 Antibody

ABD2386 100 ug
EUR 438

anti-PARP4

YF-PA23186 50 ul
EUR 334
Description: Mouse polyclonal to PARP4

PARP4 Blocking Peptide

DF2386-BP 1mg
EUR 195

PARP4 Conjugated Antibody

C37796 100ul
EUR 397

Anti-PARP4 antibody

STJ110641 100 µl
EUR 277
Description: This gene encodes poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase-like 1 protein, which is capable of catalyzing a poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reaction. This protein has a catalytic domain which is homologous to that of poly (ADP-ribosyl) transferase, but lacks an N-terminal DNA binding domain which activates the C-terminal catalytic domain of poly (ADP-ribosyl) transferase. Since this protein is not capable of binding DNA directly, its transferase activity may be activated by other factors such as protein-protein interaction mediated by the extensive carboxyl terminus.

Anti-PARP4 antibody

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EUR 277

PARP4 ELISA KIT|Human

EF007039 96 Tests
EUR 689

Human PARP4 shRNA Plasmid

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  • EUR 1121.00
  • 150 µg
  • 300 µg
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PARP4 ORF Vector (Human) (pORF)

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Parp4 ORF Vector (Mouse) (pORF)

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EUR 1572

PARP4 ELISA Kit (Human) (OKCD08347)

OKCD08347 96 Wells
EUR 975
Description: Description of target: This gene encodes poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase-like 1 protein, which is capable of catalyzing a poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reaction. This protein has a catalytic domain which is homologous to that of poly (ADP-ribosyl) transferase, but lacks an N-terminal DNA binding domain which activates the C-terminal catalytic domain of poly (ADP-ribosyl) transferase. Since this protein is not capable of binding DNA directly, its transferase activity may be activated by other factors such as protein-protein interaction mediated by the extensive carboxyl terminus.;Species reactivity: Human;Application: ELISA;Assay info: ;Sensitivity: < 0.061ng/mL

PARP4 ELISA Kit (Human) (OKDD00456)

OKDD00456 96 Wells
EUR 975
Description: Description of target: This gene encodes poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase-like 1 protein, which is capable of catalyzing a poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reaction. This protein has a catalytic domain which is homologous to that of poly (ADP-ribosyl) transferase, but lacks an N-terminal DNA binding domain which activates the C-terminal catalytic domain of poly (ADP-ribosyl) transferase. Since this protein is not capable of binding DNA directly, its transferase activity may be activated by other factors such as protein-protein interaction mediated by the extensive carboxyl terminus.;Species reactivity: Human;Application: ;Assay info: Quantitative Sandwich ELISA;Sensitivity: < 0.061 ng/mL

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PARP4-AS1 ORF Vector (Human) (pORF)

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HNRRabbit pAb Rabbit pAb

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Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) Antibody

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  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 592.00
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  • 100 ul
  • 200 ul
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  • 50 ul
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Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) Antibody

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  • EUR 314.00
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  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
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Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) Antibody

20-abx128291
  • EUR 425.00
  • EUR 133.00
  • EUR 1205.00
  • EUR 578.00
  • EUR 328.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-7 working days.

Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) Antibody

abx147654-100ug 100 ug
EUR 439
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.

Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) Antibody

20-abx174132
  • EUR 857.00
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  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • Please enquire.

Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) Antibody

20-abx339348
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 300.00
  • 100 ul
  • 50 ul
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Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) Antibody

20-abx322903
  • EUR 314.00
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  • 100 ug
  • 50 ug
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Parp4 sgRNA CRISPR Lentivector (Mouse) (Target 1)

K4858202 1.0 ug DNA
EUR 154

Parp4 sgRNA CRISPR Lentivector (Mouse) (Target 2)

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EUR 154

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PARP4 sgRNA CRISPR Lentivector (Human) (Target 1)

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PARP4 sgRNA CRISPR Lentivector (Human) (Target 2)

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PARP4 Protein Vector (Human) (pPB-C-His)

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PARP4 Protein Vector (Human) (pPB-N-His)

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PARP4 Protein Vector (Human) (pPM-C-HA)

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PARP4 Protein Vector (Mouse) (pPB-N-His)

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PARP4 Protein Vector (Mouse) (pPM-C-HA)

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Recombinant Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4)

4-RPC984Hu01
  • EUR 458.40
  • EUR 226.00
  • EUR 1444.00
  • EUR 548.00
  • EUR 996.00
  • EUR 370.00
  • EUR 3460.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
  • Uniprot ID: Q9UKK3
  • Buffer composition: PBS, pH 7.4, containing 0.01% SKL, 1mM DTT, 5% Trehalose and Proclin300.
  • Form: Freeze-dried powder
  • Predicted Molecular Mass (KD): 34.2kDa
  • Isoelectric Point: Inquire
Description: Recombinant Human Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 expressed in: E.coli

Parp4 3'UTR Luciferase Stable Cell Line

TU115923 1.0 ml Ask for price

Parp4 3'UTR GFP Stable Cell Line

TU165923 1.0 ml Ask for price

PARP4 3'UTR GFP Stable Cell Line

TU067410 1.0 ml
EUR 1394

PARP4 3'UTR Luciferase Stable Cell Line

TU017410 1.0 ml
EUR 1394

Rabbit pAbPC5 Rabbit pAb

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EUR 308

Rabbit pAbPC5 Rabbit pAb

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EUR 459

Rabbit pAbPC5 Rabbit pAb

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Rabbit pAbPC5 Rabbit pAb

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EUR 223

Rabbit pAbPC4 Rabbit pAb

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EUR 308

Rabbit pAbPC4 Rabbit pAb

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EUR 459

Rabbit pAbPC4 Rabbit pAb

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EUR 183

Rabbit pAbPC4 Rabbit pAb

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EUR 223

Rabbit pAbPN1 Rabbit pAb

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EUR 308

Rabbit pAbPN1 Rabbit pAb

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EUR 459

Rabbit pAbPN1 Rabbit pAb

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EUR 183

Rabbit pAbPN1 Rabbit pAb

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Rabbit pAbPC3 Rabbit pAb

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EUR 308

Rabbit pAbPC3 Rabbit pAb

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EUR 459

Rabbit pAbPC3 Rabbit pAb

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EUR 183

Rabbit pAbPC3 Rabbit pAb

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EUR 223

Rabbit pAbPC1 Rabbit pAb

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EUR 308

Rabbit pAbPC1 Rabbit pAb

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EUR 459

Rabbit pAbPC1 Rabbit pAb

A14872-20ul 20 ul
EUR 183

Rabbit pAbPC1 Rabbit pAb

A14872-50ul 50 ul
EUR 223

Elk (Ser383) ? Rabbit* Polyclonal Antibody

ABP-PAB-21010 100 ug Ask for price
    • Product line: Phospho-specific Antibodies
    • Brand:

Human Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) Protein

20-abx166526
  • EUR 648.00
  • EUR 272.00
  • EUR 1943.00
  • EUR 759.00
  • EUR 467.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-7 working days.

CAMK2D Rabbit pAb

A0656-100ul 100 ul
EUR 308

CAMK2D Rabbit pAb

A0656-200ul 200 ul
EUR 459

CAMK2D Rabbit pAb

A0656-20ul 20 ul
EUR 183

CAMK2D Rabbit pAb

A0656-50ul 50 ul
EUR 223

SPHK1 Rabbit pAb

A0660-100ul 100 ul
EUR 308

SPHK1 Rabbit pAb

A0660-200ul 200 ul
EUR 459

SPHK1 Rabbit pAb

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EUR 183

SPHK1 Rabbit pAb

A0660-50ul 50 ul
EUR 223

ELL Rabbit pAb

A0668-100ul 100 ul
EUR 308

ELL Rabbit pAb

A0668-200ul 200 ul
EUR 459

ELL Rabbit pAb

A0668-20ul 20 ul Ask for price

Our results show that metal (loid) Panasqueira mine contamination in the area due to genotoxic damage in both the individuals working in the mines or live in the area.