Rapid evolution of PARP genes suggests a broad role for ADP-ribosylation in host-virus conflicts.

post-translational protein modifications such as phosphorylation and ubiquitinylation is a common molecular target of conflict between viruses and their hosts. However, the role of post-translational modifications, such as ADP-ribosylation, in host-virus interactions are less well characterized. ADP-ribosylation performed by proteins encoded by PARP (also called ARTD) gene family. The majority of the 17 human PARP genes are poorly marked. However, one PARP protein, PARP13 / ZAP, has broad antiviral activity and has evolved under positive selection (diversification) in primates. like the typical evolution of the domain is locked in antagonistic ‘arms race’ with viral factors.

To identify additional PARP genes that may be involved in host-virus interactions, we do evolutionary analysis on all primates PARP genes to look for signs of rapid evolution. Contrary to the expectation that most of PARP genes involved in the function of ‘housekeeping’, we found that nearly a third of PARP genes that evolved under strong positive selection over and over.

We identify> 300 amino acid region PARP4 regular, dome structure cytoplasmic components, will grow rapidly in several lineages of mammals, suggesting this region serves as the interface of host-pathogen specificity is important. We also found a positive selection of PARP9, 14 and 15, only three human genes that contain both PARP and macrodomains domain. Macrodomains uniquely identify, and in some cases reverse, the protein mono-ADP-ribosylation, and we observed a strong signature of positive selection macrodomains repeated throughout the macro-PARP.

Furthermore, PARP14 and PARP15 have to undergo repeated rounds of birth and lose genes during vertebrate evolution, consistent with recurrent gene innovation. Together with previous studies that involved several PARPs in immunity, as well as those that demonstrate the role macrodomains viral encoded in the evasion of host immune, evolutionary analysis we show that addition, the recognition and elimination of ADP-ribosylation is important, the currency undervalued in the host -virus conflict.

Rapid evolution of PARP genes suggests a broad role for ADP-ribosylation in host-virus conflicts.
Rapid evolution of PARP genes suggests a broad role for ADP-ribosylation in host-virus conflicts.

genotoxic effects of exposure to the metal (loid) s. A molecular epidemiological survey of people living and working in the mining area Panasqueira, Portugal.

Previous research investigating the exposure of metal (loid) s of people living in mining areas of central Portugal Panasqueira find a higher internal dose of elements such as arsenic, chromium, lead, manganese, molybdenum and zinc in individuals exposed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of genotoxic damage caused by exposure to environmental and occupational individuals previously tested for metal (loid) level in different biological matrices, and the role of modulation possibilities genetic polymorphisms involved in the metabolism and DNA repair.

T-cell receptor mutation test, comet assay, micronucleus (MN) test and chromosomal aberrations (CA) is done in a group of 122 subjects who worked in the mines Panasqueira or stay in the same area. Modifying effect of polymorphism in GSTA2, GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, XRCC1, APEX1, MPG, MUTYH, OGG1, PARP1, PARP4, ERCC1, ERCC4 and ERCC5 genes investigated.

a significant increase in the frequency of all investigated biomarker found in the exposed groups, but they are exposed to the environment are generally higher. a significant influence of polymorphism observed for GSTM1 deletion and at a frequency of CA OGG1 rs1052133, rs1130409 APEX1 to DNA damage, ERCC1 rs3212986 on DNA damage and CA frequencies, and ERCC4 rs1800067 in MN and CA frequencies.

Human Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) ELISA Kit

DLR-PARP4-Hu-48T 48T
EUR 620.4
Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Human Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) in samples from tissue homogenates or other biological fluids.

Human Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) ELISA Kit

DLR-PARP4-Hu-96T 96T
EUR 807.6
Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Human Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) in samples from tissue homogenates or other biological fluids.

Human Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) ELISA Kit

RD-PARP4-Hu-48Tests 48 Tests
EUR 625.2

Human Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) ELISA Kit

RD-PARP4-Hu-96Tests 96 Tests
EUR 867.6

Human Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) ELISA Kit

RDR-PARP4-Hu-48Tests 48 Tests
EUR 652.8

Human Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) ELISA Kit

RDR-PARP4-Hu-96Tests 96 Tests
EUR 907.2

PARP4 Antibody

DF2386 200ul
EUR 420

PARP4 siRNA

20-abx927766
  • EUR 661.20
  • EUR 878.40
  • 15 nmol
  • 30 nmol

PARP4 Antibody

1-CSB-PA007321
  • EUR 266.40
  • EUR 234.00
  • 100ug
  • 50ug
Description: A polyclonal antibody against PARP4. Recognizes PARP4 from Human. This antibody is Unconjugated. Tested in the following application: IHC, ELISA;IHC:1/100-1/300.ELISA:1/10000

PARP4 Antibody

1-CSB-PA947926
  • EUR 380.40
  • EUR 292.80
  • 100ul
  • 50ul
Description: A polyclonal antibody against PARP4. Recognizes PARP4 from Human. This antibody is Unconjugated. Tested in the following application: ELISA, IHC;ELISA:1:1000-1:2000, IHC:1:25-1:100

PARP4 antibody

70R-33845 100 ug
EUR 392.4
Description: Rabbit polyclonal PARP4 antibody

PARP4 Antibody

37796-100ul 100ul
EUR 302.4

PARP4 antibody

10R-1680 100 ug
EUR 614.4
Description: Mouse monoclonal PARP4 antibody

PARP4 Antibody

ABD2386 100 ug
EUR 525.6

anti-PARP4

YF-PA23186 50 ul
EUR 400.8
Description: Mouse polyclonal to PARP4

PARP4 Blocking Peptide

DF2386-BP 1mg
EUR 234

PARP4 Conjugated Antibody

C37796 100ul
EUR 476.4

Anti-PARP4 antibody

STJ110641 100 µl
EUR 332.4
Description: This gene encodes poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase-like 1 protein, which is capable of catalyzing a poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reaction. This protein has a catalytic domain which is homologous to that of poly (ADP-ribosyl) transferase, but lacks an N-terminal DNA binding domain which activates the C-terminal catalytic domain of poly (ADP-ribosyl) transferase. Since this protein is not capable of binding DNA directly, its transferase activity may be activated by other factors such as protein-protein interaction mediated by the extensive carboxyl terminus.

Anti-PARP4 antibody

STJ119167 100 µl
EUR 332.4

Human PARP4 shRNA Plasmid

20-abx950100
  • EUR 961.20
  • EUR 1345.20
  • 150 µg
  • 300 µg

PARP4 ELISA KIT|Human

EF007039 96 Tests
EUR 826.8

Rabbit Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) ELISA Kit

abx363456-96tests 96 tests
EUR 990

PARP4 ELISA Kit (Human) (OKCD08347)

OKCD08347 96 Wells
EUR 1170
Description: Description of target: This gene encodes poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase-like 1 protein, which is capable of catalyzing a poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reaction. This protein has a catalytic domain which is homologous to that of poly (ADP-ribosyl) transferase, but lacks an N-terminal DNA binding domain which activates the C-terminal catalytic domain of poly (ADP-ribosyl) transferase. Since this protein is not capable of binding DNA directly, its transferase activity may be activated by other factors such as protein-protein interaction mediated by the extensive carboxyl terminus.;Species reactivity: Human;Application: ELISA;Assay info: ;Sensitivity: < 0.061ng/mL

PARP4 ELISA Kit (Human) (OKDD00456)

OKDD00456 96 Wells
EUR 1170
Description: Description of target: This gene encodes poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase-like 1 protein, which is capable of catalyzing a poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reaction. This protein has a catalytic domain which is homologous to that of poly (ADP-ribosyl) transferase, but lacks an N-terminal DNA binding domain which activates the C-terminal catalytic domain of poly (ADP-ribosyl) transferase. Since this protein is not capable of binding DNA directly, its transferase activity may be activated by other factors such as protein-protein interaction mediated by the extensive carboxyl terminus.;Species reactivity: Human;Application: ;Assay info: Quantitative Sandwich ELISA;Sensitivity: < 0.061 ng/mL

PARP4 ORF Vector (Human) (pORF)

ORF027423 1.0 ug DNA
EUR 486

Parp4 ORF Vector (Mouse) (pORF)

ORF053400 1.0 ug DNA
EUR 1886.4

PARP4-AS1 ORF Vector (Human) (pORF)

ORF027424 1.0 ug DNA Ask for price

PARP4 sgRNA CRISPR Lentivector set (Human)

K1595801 3 x 1.0 ug
EUR 406.8

Parp4 sgRNA CRISPR Lentivector set (Mouse)

K4858201 3 x 1.0 ug
EUR 406.8

HNRRabbit pAb Rabbit pAb

A17497-100ul 100 ul
EUR 369.6

HNRRabbit pAb Rabbit pAb

A17497-200ul 200 ul
EUR 550.8

HNRRabbit pAb Rabbit pAb

A17497-20ul 20 ul
EUR 219.6

HNRRabbit pAb Rabbit pAb

A17497-50ul 50 ul
EUR 267.6

Rabbit pAbPC1 Rabbit pAb

A14872-100ul 100 ul
EUR 369.6

Rabbit pAbPC1 Rabbit pAb

A14872-200ul 200 ul
EUR 550.8

Rabbit pAbPC1 Rabbit pAb

A14872-20ul 20 ul
EUR 219.6

Rabbit pAbPC1 Rabbit pAb

A14872-50ul 50 ul
EUR 267.6

Rabbit pAbPC5 Rabbit pAb

A9997-100ul 100 ul
EUR 369.6

Rabbit pAbPC5 Rabbit pAb

A9997-200ul 200 ul
EUR 550.8

Rabbit pAbPC5 Rabbit pAb

A9997-20ul 20 ul
EUR 219.6

Rabbit pAbPC5 Rabbit pAb

A9997-50ul 50 ul
EUR 267.6

Rabbit pAbPC3 Rabbit pAb

A18370-100ul 100 ul
EUR 369.6

Rabbit pAbPC3 Rabbit pAb

A18370-200ul 200 ul
EUR 550.8

Rabbit pAbPC3 Rabbit pAb

A18370-20ul 20 ul
EUR 219.6

Rabbit pAbPC3 Rabbit pAb

A18370-50ul 50 ul
EUR 267.6

Rabbit pAbPN1 Rabbit pAb

A6041-100ul 100 ul
EUR 369.6

Rabbit pAbPN1 Rabbit pAb

A6041-200ul 200 ul
EUR 550.8

Rabbit pAbPN1 Rabbit pAb

A6041-20ul 20 ul
EUR 219.6

Rabbit pAbPN1 Rabbit pAb

A6041-50ul 50 ul
EUR 267.6

Rabbit pAbPC4 Rabbit pAb

A5948-100ul 100 ul
EUR 369.6

Rabbit pAbPC4 Rabbit pAb

A5948-200ul 200 ul
EUR 550.8

Rabbit pAbPC4 Rabbit pAb

A5948-20ul 20 ul
EUR 219.6

Rabbit pAbPC4 Rabbit pAb

A5948-50ul 50 ul
EUR 267.6

Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) Antibody

20-abx174132
  • EUR 1028.40
  • EUR 526.80
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug

Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) Antibody

abx147654-100ug 100 ug
EUR 526.8

Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) Antibody

20-abx119585
  • EUR 376.80
  • EUR 117.60
  • EUR 477.60
  • EUR 594.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 200 ug
  • 300 µg

Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) Antibody

20-abx128291
  • EUR 510.00
  • EUR 159.60
  • EUR 1446.00
  • EUR 693.60
  • EUR 393.60
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) Antibody

20-abx006130
  • EUR 493.20
  • EUR 710.40
  • EUR 218.40
  • EUR 376.80
  • 100 ul
  • 200 ul
  • 20 ul
  • 50 ul

Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) Antibody

20-abx339348
  • EUR 493.20
  • EUR 360.00
  • 100 ul
  • 50 ul

Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4) Antibody

20-abx322903
  • EUR 376.80
  • EUR 292.80
  • 100 ug
  • 50 ug

PARP4 sgRNA CRISPR Lentivector (Human) (Target 1)

K1595802 1.0 ug DNA
EUR 184.8

PARP4 sgRNA CRISPR Lentivector (Human) (Target 2)

K1595803 1.0 ug DNA
EUR 184.8

PARP4 sgRNA CRISPR Lentivector (Human) (Target 3)

K1595804 1.0 ug DNA
EUR 184.8

Parp4 sgRNA CRISPR Lentivector (Mouse) (Target 1)

K4858202 1.0 ug DNA
EUR 184.8

Parp4 sgRNA CRISPR Lentivector (Mouse) (Target 2)

K4858203 1.0 ug DNA
EUR 184.8

Parp4 sgRNA CRISPR Lentivector (Mouse) (Target 3)

K4858204 1.0 ug DNA
EUR 184.8

PARP4 Protein Vector (Human) (pPB-C-His)

PV109690 500 ng Ask for price

PARP4 Protein Vector (Human) (pPB-N-His)

PV109691 500 ng Ask for price

PARP4 Protein Vector (Human) (pPM-C-HA)

PV109692 500 ng Ask for price

PARP4 Protein Vector (Human) (pPM-C-His)

PV109693 500 ng Ask for price

PARP4 Protein Vector (Mouse) (pPB-C-His)

PV213598 500 ng
EUR 3902.4

PARP4 Protein Vector (Mouse) (pPB-N-His)

PV213599 500 ng
EUR 3902.4

PARP4 Protein Vector (Mouse) (pPM-C-HA)

PV213600 500 ng
EUR 3902.4

PARP4 Protein Vector (Mouse) (pPM-C-His)

PV213601 500 ng
EUR 3902.4

Parp4 3'UTR GFP Stable Cell Line

TU165923 1.0 ml Ask for price

Recombinant Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 (PARP4)

4-RPC984Hu01
  • EUR 550.08
  • EUR 271.20
  • EUR 1732.80
  • EUR 657.60
  • EUR 1195.20
  • EUR 444.00
  • EUR 4152.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Human Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase 4 expressed in: E.coli

PARP4 3'UTR Luciferase Stable Cell Line

TU017410 1.0 ml
EUR 1672.8

Parp4 3'UTR Luciferase Stable Cell Line

TU115923 1.0 ml Ask for price

PARP4 3'UTR GFP Stable Cell Line

TU067410 1.0 ml
EUR 1672.8

Elk (Ser383) ? Rabbit* Polyclonal Antibody

ABP-PAB-21010 100 ug Ask for price

POFUT1 Rabbit pAb

A8338-100ul 100 ul
EUR 369.6

POFUT1 Rabbit pAb

A8338-200ul 200 ul
EUR 550.8

POFUT1 Rabbit pAb

A8338-20ul 20 ul
EUR 219.6

POFUT1 Rabbit pAb

A8338-50ul 50 ul
EUR 267.6

GRPEL2 Rabbit pAb

A8339-100ul 100 ul
EUR 369.6

GRPEL2 Rabbit pAb

A8339-200ul 200 ul
EUR 550.8

GRPEL2 Rabbit pAb

A8339-20ul 20 ul
EUR 219.6

GRPEL2 Rabbit pAb

A8339-50ul 50 ul
EUR 267.6

CAD Rabbit pAb

A8344-100ul 100 ul
EUR 369.6

CAD Rabbit pAb

A8344-200ul 200 ul
EUR 550.8

CAD Rabbit pAb

A8344-20ul 20 ul
EUR 219.6

CAD Rabbit pAb

A8344-50ul 50 ul
EUR 267.6

CHM Rabbit pAb

A8345-100ul 100 ul
EUR 369.6

CHM Rabbit pAb

A8345-200ul 200 ul
EUR 550.8

CHM Rabbit pAb

A8345-20ul 20 ul
EUR 219.6

CHM Rabbit pAb

A8345-50ul 50 ul
EUR 267.6

EPHA4 Rabbit pAb

A8346-100ul 100 ul
EUR 369.6

EPHA4 Rabbit pAb

A8346-200ul 200 ul
EUR 550.8

EPHA4 Rabbit pAb

A8346-20ul 20 ul
EUR 219.6

EPHA4 Rabbit pAb

A8346-50ul 50 ul
EUR 267.6

KPNA3 Rabbit pAb

A8347-100ul 100 ul
EUR 369.6

KPNA3 Rabbit pAb

A8347-200ul 200 ul
EUR 550.8

KPNA3 Rabbit pAb

A8347-20ul 20 ul
EUR 219.6

KPNA3 Rabbit pAb

A8347-50ul 50 ul
EUR 267.6

MYBPC1 Rabbit pAb

A8348-100ul 100 ul
EUR 369.6

MYBPC1 Rabbit pAb

A8348-200ul 200 ul
EUR 550.8

MYBPC1 Rabbit pAb

A8348-20ul 20 ul
EUR 219.6

MYBPC1 Rabbit pAb

A8348-50ul 50 ul
EUR 267.6

NID1 Rabbit pAb

A8349-100ul 100 ul
EUR 369.6

NID1 Rabbit pAb

A8349-200ul 200 ul
EUR 550.8

NID1 Rabbit pAb

A8349-20ul 20 ul
EUR 219.6

NID1 Rabbit pAb

A8349-50ul 50 ul
EUR 267.6

NME4 Rabbit pAb

A8350-100ul 100 ul
EUR 369.6

NME4 Rabbit pAb

A8350-200ul 200 ul
EUR 550.8

NME4 Rabbit pAb

A8350-20ul 20 ul
EUR 219.6

NME4 Rabbit pAb

A8350-50ul 50 ul
EUR 267.6

RNF5 Rabbit pAb

A8351-100ul 100 ul
EUR 369.6

RNF5 Rabbit pAb

A8351-200ul 200 ul
EUR 550.8

RNF5 Rabbit pAb

A8351-20ul 20 ul
EUR 219.6

RNF5 Rabbit pAb

A8351-50ul 50 ul
EUR 267.6

RPN2 Rabbit pAb

A8352-100ul 100 ul
EUR 369.6

RPN2 Rabbit pAb

A8352-200ul 200 ul
EUR 550.8

RPN2 Rabbit pAb

A8352-20ul 20 ul
EUR 219.6

RPN2 Rabbit pAb

A8352-50ul 50 ul
EUR 267.6

HLTF Rabbit pAb

A8353-100ul 100 ul
EUR 369.6

HLTF Rabbit pAb

A8353-200ul 200 ul
EUR 550.8

HLTF Rabbit pAb

A8353-20ul 20 ul
EUR 219.6

HLTF Rabbit pAb

A8353-50ul 50 ul
EUR 267.6

XPC Rabbit pAb

A8354-100ul 100 ul
EUR 369.6

XPC Rabbit pAb

A8354-200ul 200 ul
EUR 550.8

XPC Rabbit pAb

A8354-20ul 20 ul
EUR 219.6

XPC Rabbit pAb

A8354-50ul 50 ul
EUR 267.6

ZP3 Rabbit pAb

A8355-100ul 100 ul
EUR 369.6

ZP3 Rabbit pAb

A8355-200ul 200 ul
EUR 550.8

ZP3 Rabbit pAb

A8355-20ul 20 ul
EUR 219.6

ZP3 Rabbit pAb

A8355-50ul 50 ul
EUR 267.6

DDX39B Rabbit pAb

A8356-100ul 100 ul
EUR 369.6

DDX39B Rabbit pAb

A8356-200ul 200 ul
EUR 550.8

DDX39B Rabbit pAb

A8356-20ul 20 ul
EUR 219.6

DDX39B Rabbit pAb

A8356-50ul 50 ul
EUR 267.6

NUP214 Rabbit pAb

A8357-100ul 100 ul
EUR 369.6

NUP214 Rabbit pAb

A8357-200ul 200 ul
EUR 550.8

NUP214 Rabbit pAb

A8357-20ul 20 ul
EUR 219.6

NUP214 Rabbit pAb

A8357-50ul 50 ul
EUR 267.6

MDC1 Rabbit pAb

A8358-100ul 100 ul
EUR 369.6

MDC1 Rabbit pAb

A8358-200ul 200 ul
EUR 550.8

MDC1 Rabbit pAb

A8358-20ul 20 ul
EUR 219.6

MDC1 Rabbit pAb

A8358-50ul 50 ul
EUR 267.6

PPP6R2 Rabbit pAb

A8359-100ul 100 ul
EUR 369.6

PPP6R2 Rabbit pAb

A8359-200ul 200 ul
EUR 550.8

PPP6R2 Rabbit pAb

A8359-20ul 20 ul
EUR 219.6

PPP6R2 Rabbit pAb

A8359-50ul 50 ul
EUR 267.6

Our results show that metal (loid) Panasqueira mine contamination in the area due to genotoxic damage in both the individuals working in the mines or live in the area.